Forced migration: Conditions, forms, and consequences
Forced migration (flight, expulsion, deportation, resettlement, etc.) occurs when a state, semi-state or quasi-state actors place far-reaching restrictions on the power to act and thus on the freedom and freedom of movement of individuals or collectives. Violent migration is caused by a compulsion to emigrate that does not allow for any realistic alternative course of action. It can be a flight from violence that directly or expectably threatens life, physical integrity, freedom and rights, usually for political, racial, gender or religious reasons. Forced migration was and is usually the result of war, civil war or measures taken by authoritarian political systems. The backgrounds, patterns of movement and consequences of forced migration are the subject of this IMIS research area, as are the global, regional, national and local protection regimes and the specific social negotiations, shaped by numerous actors, through which protection is offered, under what circumstances and with what scope.